Bendeker, in Makaz, Shaalbim, Beit Shemesh, and Elon-beth-hanan (Kings 1 4:9)
(Communicated by the IAA Spokesperson) Who was the “Glorious Martyr” immortalized by the Greek inscription, in whose memory this magnificent church was built and later enlarged under the patronage of the Byzantine Emperor Tiberius II himself? This mystery has fixated archaeologists of the Israel Antiquities Authority for the past three years during excavations conducted in Ramat Beit Shemesh, financed by Jerusalem district in The Israel Ministry of Construction and Housing and the CPM Corporation.
The Ministry of Construction and Housing has invested approximately 70 million NIS in the excavations, conservation and development of archaeological parks as part of the construction of the new neighborhood, of which approximately 7 million NIS were allocated for this excavation.
Today (Wednesday, 23 October 2019), the IAA unveils the finds to the public in a new exhibition – “The Glorious Martyr,” in collaboration with the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem (BLMJ).
Archaeological excavations revealed remains of an impressive Byzantine church founded some 1,500 years ago. The church was adorned with spectacular mosaics intricately designed with leaves, fruit, birds, and geometrical elements. The walls of the church were decorated with colorful frescoes and lofty pillars crowned with impressive capitals, some of which may have been imported.
The excavations exposed an architectural complex spread over 1.5 dunams. Excavations in the center of the site revealed a church built according to a basilica plan – an elongated structure lined with two rows of columns that divided the internal space into three sections – a central nave flanked by two halls. A spacious courtyard (atrium) was found just outside the church’s entrance.
The primary stage of the church’s construction occurred during the reign of Emperor Justinian in the 6th century CE (527-565). Later, during the reign of Emperor Tiberius II Constantine, an exquisite side chapel was added. A fascinating inscription found intact in the courtyard dedicated the church to a “glorious martyr.”
According to Benjamin Storchan, director of excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, “the martyr’s identity is not known, but the exceptional opulence of the structure and its inscriptions indicate that this person was an important figure.
Storchan adds, “Only a few churches in Israel have been discovered with fully intact crypts. The crypt served as an underground burial chamber that apparently housed the remains (relics) of the martyr. The crypt was accessed via parallel staircases – one leading down into the chamber, the other leading back up into the prayer hall. This enabled large groups of Christian pilgrims to visit the place.” The crypt itself was once lined with marble slabs, giving it an impressive appearance.
According to Storchan, the site’s importance is affirmed by the expansion carried out under the patronage of Emperor Tiberius II Constantine (574-582 CE). A Greek inscription discovered at the site states that the expansion of the church was completed with his financial support. “Numerous written sources attest to imperial funding for churches in Israel, however, little is known from archaeological evidence such as dedicatory inscriptions like the one found in Beit Shemesh,” says Storchan. “Imperial involvement in the building’s expansion is also evoked by the image of a large eagle with outspread wings – the symbol of the Byzantine Empire – which appears in one of the mosaics.”
The Archaeological excavation of the site was mostly performed by thousands of teenagers, who came to dig as part of the IAA’s educational vision- aiming to connect Israeli youth to their haritage. The teens came to dig as part of their national service and IDF preparation programs, or through their high schools- as part of Israeli studies. Large groups of Mashatsim – Young Shelach Leaders, also participated at this dig, alongside teenagers from the Beit Shemesh vicinity who came for a summer job. They all earned a unique experience, were exposed to the history of our land, performed hard physical labor and practiced team work. Most of the significant finds at the dig were discovered by these teens, who have learned that hard work pays.
Excavations revealed thousands of objects, and what appears to be the most complete collection of Byzantine glass windows and lamps ever found at a single site in Israel. Additionally, a unique baptismal font in the shape of a cross was found in one of the rooms of the church, made of a type of calcite stone that forms in stalactite caves.
Amanda Weiss, Director General of the Bible Lands Museum: The vision of the Bible Lands Museum is to be a cultural and educational institution connecting its visitors to the roots of our past. We are proud of our collaboration with the Israel Antiquities Authority bringing to light these important new finds for the thousands of visitors from all faiths ages and nationalities, inviting them to appreciate the rich cultural heritage of the Land of Israel. In the words of the museum’s founder, Dr. Elie Borowski, “The future of mankind has its roots in the past. Only through understanding our history can we build a better future.”